Precautions for Caregivers
Contact with infected bodily fluids, including saliva or urine of young children, is a major cause of CMV infection among pregnant women – especially mothers, daycare workers, preschool teachers, therapists, and nurses. Studies in childcare settings suggest that as many as 75% of toddler-aged children have cmv in their urine or saliva, and viable CMV can persist on hands for at least 15 minutes.
Per the AAPs 2015 Red Book recommendations for CMV, which states that healthcare workers, even when pregnant, do not need to exclude children with CMV, as up to 80% of asymptomatic children are shedding CMV at any time. Universal precautions are enough to minimize exposure.
For Medical Professionals
Standard precautions in healthcare settings are adequate for preventing transmission of CMV between patients and staff. Routine screening of patients for CMV infection is not recommended.
Although CMV is spread through contact with infected body fluids, including urine and saliva, the risk of CMV infection among caregivers or healthcare workers appears to be no greater than that among the general public. This could be because of the strict standard precautions already practiced by caregivers or healthcare providers when handling body fluids.
For Educational Professionals
Standard hygiene practices are advised for all persons caring for children.
CMV is a very common virus in healthy young children, not just those who are born with congenital CMV. It is estimated that up to 70% of healthy children between one and three years of age may have CMV. Healthy children who acquire CMV from their peers will not experience the same long-term outcomes as those infected during pregnancy; for instance, they will not become deaf or disabled from their exposure to CMV.
Daycares, preschools, grade schools, therapy centers, churches, and community members should not require a child to be tested for CMV shedding before accepting him or her into a program. Children born with congenital CMV should not be discriminated against or excluded from school or other public settings.